Wednesday, February 22, 2012

E-C-404 Mass Communication and Media Studies

v  Assignment paper: E-C-404 Mass Communication and Media 
v Topic                     : Advertisingitique on "Black Skin, White Masks" 
v Student’s Name   : Gandhi Pooja S.
v Roll No                : 08
v URL                     :
v Semester              : 4
v Batch                   : 2011-12

                    Submitted to,                                 
                          Dr. Dilip Barad                                           
                       Department of English              
                        Bhavnagar University

v What is advertising?
Advertising is a form of mass communication. It involves a process of transmission of information by the manufacture or a seller of a product or service to modify or stimulate the behavior of the buyer to buy a particular product.
Advertising can be in any form of presentation such as sign, symbol or illustration in print media, a commercial on radio or television, poster, etc. Thus, advertising is the communication link between the seller and the buyer. It has made mass selling possible. The term advertising is derived from the Latin word ‘advertene’. It means to turn the mind to advertising diverts the attention of the buyers to product or service.
Advertising pays the mass media to disseminate its messages and without advertising, our newspaper, magazines and radio and even television programming would be far different. One of the basic ingredients of today’s popular culture is consumption and it is the advertising industry that makes mass consumption possible. Advertising is an important element of our culture because it reflects and attempts to change our life styles. New cultural trends and fashions are first transmitted to the mass culture through advertisements.
v Development of advertising in India:
Advertising in India has created an incredible awareness among the people in the past decade growing in to big industry. It has grown along with the press and today it has found its way into the other two media-Radio and Television. Advertising which was an American concept originally has found its place in a country like India.  Advertising in India grew with the Indian press. In the initial period, to advertise meant to inform. The early newspapers and magazines announced births, deaths, arrivals of ships from England, century about sports, sale of household furniture, etc. in the beginning of nineteenth century new products, discounts and special services got their place in advertisements. Thus, gradually advertising started gaining power. It increased with the growth of trade and commerce. The leading newspapers like ‘The Times of India’ and ‘The Statesman’ had their own advertising departments which prepared layouts for advertisements. In early twentieth century the advertising agencies such as Indian Advertising Agency and Calcutta Advertising Agency were started. During second would war press advertising was used extensively to raise funds for the war? The Indian professionals also learnt how to motivate the masses through advertising between1922-1939 many advertising agencies came up such as New India Publicity Co., Paradise Advertising Agency of Calcutta, and National Advertising Agency and so on.
The Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI) was established in 1945, training an authority to represent the interests and problems of advertising profession. At the time of independence, advertising business was expanding. It grew technically also with the introduction of multi-color printing, and improved printing machines. Commercial art also grew as a profession which boosted the advertising business. In 1951, the Indian Society of Advertisers was formed and in May 1958, the society of Advertising practitioners was formed. During pre-independence era, Indian advertisements were mostly about clothes, travelling, eating and entrainments places, India, hotels, for-wheelers, tea, gramophones and tailoring shops for Britishers in India and the princely families.
In the post-independence period, the focus of advertisements shifted from luxury goods to consumer goods bought mainly for time and labour saving purposes. In 1976, first-commercial spot appeared on Television and in 1980, the first advertisement sponsors were allowed. In modern time, the target audience with the policy of liberalization, the business culture improved all around. This led advertising agencies to raise their creative standards and improvements in functioning of the ad agencies. Moreover, many specializations came up in advertising. Such as financial advertising, direct marketing, social advertising, etc. this resulted in the growth in number and size of the in-house agencies. Mudra Communications was promoted by Reliance Industries; Shristi was set up by ‘Lohia machines’, Ambience by Garden Silk Mills, etc.
v Important features of advertising:
Ø  It is directed towards increasing the sales of business.
Ø  Advertising is a paid form of publicity
Ø  It is non-personal. They are directed neither at a mass audience nor at the individual as is in case of personal selling.
Ø  Advertising are identifiable with their sponsors of originator which is not always the case with publicity or propaganda.
v Advertising as Mass Medium:
·         Benefits and loss of advertising for customers and society:
Advertising is dynamic as mass medium. It changes with changing markets, changing life styles, changing methods of distribution and changing techniques of communication.
Advertising in general renders a useful service to society and its members. It disseminates information that indicates differences between brands of products and types of services as also the distinguishing characteristics of institutions and manufactures. Advertising serves as a powerful persuasive tool for the manufacturer creating a demand of his product. Many authors have argued that the power of advertising is so great that it deprives consumers of their discretion in the market place and makes it possible for suppliers to manage demand. Advertising contains an element of persuasion. Even purely informative advertisements have all that is needed to persuade a reader or listener to buy the product. It involves a recognition or belief on the part of the reader or listener that the advertised product will satisfy a need or desire. It interprets the hidden qualities of the product in terms of basic human desires.
Advertising communicates about a wide range of choices and facilitates the selection process. It increases consumption, raises standard of living and improves the quality of life people. Thus, it contributes to the development of the society. Advertising also contributes substantially to consumer education. This is vital in a society where a consumer enjoys greater freedom in choosing what to buy. Advertising educates with the help of illustration, comparisons, literature, demonstration, etc. Advertising affects the human values. Sometimes it creates wants for wrong thing such as beer, liquor, cigarettes, chocolates, etc. I create value for luxuries. Thus people become dissatisfied with what they have. They desire for things which are not within their reach. People tend to have things in excess and thus it contributes to the wastage of many things such as food items, appliances, clothes, furniture, cosmetics, etc.
Sandbag and Fryburger has rightly mentioned.”The Power of advertising is not that great. The audience’s predispositions, their attitudes, beliefs, motives, and values largely determine the media they select, the advertisements they see, the messages they accept, and he products they buy. Instead of forcing a response, advertising elicits responses the audience was predisposed to make. Advertising succeeds when it gives people what they want.”
Advertising as a medium is used for creating awareness about social problems. Advertising campaigns by government and social organizations dealing with importance of literacy, adult education, drug abuse, family planning etc. Influence the thinking of society and affect the consumption patterns of the consumers. Nowadays advertising is playing a crucial role all over the world in educating, informing and motivating layman on a number of social issues and themes with casual commercial activities.
Advertising in India is performing a function of developing social conscience. An extensive application of advertising has been noticed in social services like clean Ganga, donation of eyes, immunization, family planning, pollution, anti-drug addiction, etc.
v Types of advertising:
1.      Classified Advertising:
At the other extreme is ‘classified advertising’ which provides valuable information about the dry matter-of-fact manner. Useful information about the employment market, about births, deaths, engagements and marriages, about changes of names, about accommodation and housing, about the availability of various services such as tuitions, and about various items on sale is described in advertising. Matrimonial advertisements are frequently downright casteist, racist and sexist but they fill the weekend papers.
2.      Public Service Advertising:
Public service advertising known as ‘social service’ advertising and it also known as ‘development advertising’. This type of advertising focuses on social issues like family planning, national integration, pollution, care for the aged and the disabled, cautious driving, campaigns against alcohol, drugs and smoking. Their primary purpose is public education through hard-hitting didactic messages. They do not sell products or services but ‘ideas’ and ‘messages’.
3.      Industrial Advertising:
This type differs from others in that machinery and large outlays are involved. The descriptions in such ads are therefore precise and technical; the appeal is down-to-earth and rational. The presentations are mostly factual since the target audience is technical personnel of industrial companies.
4.      Corporate r Institutional Advertising:
The aim here is the building up of a good public image for a company. This type focuses on a company’s activities in research, development and quality control, on its sponsorship, of educational, cultural and sports programmes, and on its consumer service and social service programmes. The advertising technique employed for the purpose is information oriented, rather than rhetorical. The large display ads of the ‘achievements’ of State Governments, the telephone and telecommunications authorities, the Indian railways serve a similar purpose.
5.      Other Types of Advertising:
In recent years the advertising of issues of corporate shares and bonds has come as a boon to the press. With most corporate shares over-subscribed, the market has become competitive. The business press has begun to flourish as a result. Yet another little known advertising type is that of Legal Tenders and Legal Notices, and other public notices. Display advertising for appointments in the country and overseas, especially in West Asian countries, has also proved popular. Advertising for Hotels and Tourists, particularly by State Governments, Tourism Boards, Airlines, Travel Agencies, Passport and Visa Assistance, has seen big boost in the late ‘eighties’. During election time, political advertising takes pride of place in the press.
v Advertising Industry
The Indian advertising industry is talking business today. It has evolved from being a small-scale business to a full-fledged industry. It has emerged as one of the major industries has broadened its horizons be it the creative aspect, the capital employed or the number of personnel involved. Indian advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on the global map. Indian advertising industry with an estimated value of Rs 13, 200-crore has made jaws drop and set eyeballs gazing with some astonishing pieces of work that it has given in the recent past. The creative minds that the Indian advertising industry incorporates have come up with some mind-boggling concepts and work that can be termed as masterpieces in the field of advertising.
Ø  Advertising Agencies:
Advertising agencies in the country too have taken a leap. They have come a long way from being small and medium sized industries to becoming well known brands in the business. Mudra, Ogilvy and Mathew (O&M), Mccann Ericsonn, Rediffussion, Leo Burnett are some of the top agencies of the country. Indian economy is on a boom and the market is on a continuous trail of expansion. With the market gaining grounds Indian advertising has every reason to celebrate. Businesses are looking up to advertising as a tool to cash in on lucrative business opportunities. Growth in business has lead to a consecutive boom in the advertising industry as well.
Ø  Indian advertising:
The Indian advertising today handles both national and international projects. This is primarily because of the reason that the industry offers a host of functions to its clients that include everything from start to finish that include client servicing, media planning, media buying, creative conceptualization, pre and post campaign analysis, market research, marketing, branding, and public relation services. Keeping in mind the current pace at which the Indian advertising industry is moving the industry is expected to witness a major boom in the times ahead. If the experts are to be believed then the industry in the coming times will form a major contribution to the GDP. With all this there is definitely no looking back for the Indian advertising industry that is all set to win accolades from the world over.
v What is the role of mass media in development of children?
Without communication an individual could never become a human being; without mass communication an individual could never become part of modern society. Socialisation is a life-long active process, beginning o the day of one’s birth. The child learns to socialise from the parents and the social groups he or she belongs to. As children grow up they come into contact with other social groups, but their basic loyalties are to their own primary and secondary groups which provide them their sets of attitudes, beliefs, and norms of behaviour. Children come under three kinds of social control: (1) Tradition orientation - social control based on tradition; (2) inner orientation - social control achieved through standards, guidelines or values existing in each individual; and (3) external or other orientation – social control achieved by conformity to standards existing in other persons and groups.
The child of today comes into contact with groups other than those in school; for instance, through the mass media, which give him/her access to remote groups and their cultures. Besides, the mass media provide models of behaviour, and norms of living. The child begins to imitate them, particularly in cases where he or she is least integrated into the family or the peer group. Such children rely heavily n media advice and models; while others do not since their activities outside the home provide them greater stimuli and other models.
v Impact of advertising on children:
In any study of media influence on children, r on the influence of children’s interests and needs on the media, the age group is an important variable. Other equally important variables are social class, religious and cultural background, linguistic background and community. It has been found from research by Jean Piaget and others that the pre-operational child, responds differently from the child belonging to the concrete operations stage or to the formal operations stage. To illustrate, young children aged five and below see a series and fragmentary incidents rather than the story of advertising. They do not invariably recognise the identities of the principal character throughout the advertising, and they tend to believe implicitly what they see on T.V. to be real. And, interestingly, they sometimes read incidents and events that they think should have occurred.
The six to eleven year old child, however, understands the story of advertising, but still understands only the concrete physical behaviour of advertising, the performers. Only at the age of ten or eleven, does he usually understand the feelings and motivations and put himself in the shoes of a character.
The eleven to twelve year old child comes to realize the make believe fantasy world of advertising. He also gradually begins to understand the emotional relationship in ads and to appreciate some and dislike other aspects of advertising. Recent studies of children’s interaction with television suggest that children make for a ‘lively audience’ and are highly discriminating and critical viewers. Children below the age of sixteen comprise about forty per cent of the population of India. Yet barely five per cent of total telecast time on general Entertainment Channels is directly aimed at children, this is equally true of other mass media too.
v Conclusion:
According to, Sandbag and Fryburger  
“Advertising as medium creates awareness and builds confidence in consumers. Thus advertising helps in making the economic system more responsive to consumer preferences. Ultimately it speeds up the process of resource allocation.”


Monday, February 6, 2012

E-C-402 English Language Teaching-2

v  Assignment paper:E-C-402-English Language Teaching-2 
v Topic                     : CALLritique on "Black Skin, White Masks" 
v Student’s Name   : Gandhi Pooja S.
v Roll No                : 08
v URL                     :
v Semester              : 4
v Batch                   : 2011-12

                    Submitted to,                                 
                          Dr. Dilip Barad                                           
                       Department of English              
                        Bhavnagar University

v What is CALL?
                           CALL stands for Computer Assisted Language Learning. It is a term used by teachers and students to describe the use of computers as part of a language course.
                                                                                      -  Hardisty & Windeatt
It is traditionally described as 'presenting, reinforcing and testing' particular language items. The learner is first presented with a rule and some examples, and then answers a series of questions which test her/his knowledge of the rule and the computer gives appropriate feedback, which may be stored for later inspection for the teacher. According to, Jones & Fortescue “the traditional description of CALL is unfortunate and they present the computer as flexible classroom aid, which can be used by teachers and learners, in and out of class, in a variety of ways and for a variety of purposes. However, work with the computer, as any other teaching aid, needs to be linked with ordinary classroom work and CALL lessons, like the other lessons, need to be planned carefully.”
v The brief History of CALL:
                         Though computers have been used for the early 20th century but they were not used for educational purposes till the 1960s. The 1970s witnessed the evolution of CALL as a result of development in research related to the use of computers for linguistic purposes and for creating suitable language learning conditions. In America the computer based introductory courses in the 1960s were original projects in CALL, and were referred to as computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The 1980s have witnessed the spread of computers both in educational institutions and in people's homes. Since the beginning of the '80s computers have also found their way into many schools. CALL software has also become available on the market. The emergence of inexpensive computer technology and mass storage media, including optical videodiscs and compact disks, has given instructional technologists better tools to work with. Compact disks are used to store large amounts of data, such as encyclopedias or motion pictures.
                          In CALL centers with computers and software such as CD-ROM, CD-I, or videodiscs, a student who is interested in a particular topic can first scan an electronic encyclopedia, then view a film on the subject or look at related topics at the reach of a button. Thus, such learning centers present students with the advantages of reference materials and popularize computer-aided instruction. The computer laboratory has become an integral component of foreign-language programs in most educational institutions. Computers have been used for language teaching for more than three decades. According to Warschauer & Healey the history of CALL can be divided into three stages: Behaviouristic CALL, Communicative CALL and Integrative CALL.
v Stages of CALL based on History:
1.      Behavioristic CALL:
Behavioristic CALL is recognized as the first phase of CALL. It was introduced in the 1950s and implemented in the 1960s when the audio-lingual method was widely used in language instruction. Most of CALL programs in this phase entailed repetitive language drills-and-practice activities. Taylor (1980) referred to drill and practice courseware as a tutor presenting drill exercises without feed-back component. In this regard, the computer serves as a vehicle for delivering instructional material.
2.      Communicative CALL:
 Communicative CALL the second phase of the development of CALL, emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The focus of CALL in this phase is placed on using the language or functions rather than analysis of language forms. The first communicative CALL software (e.g., text reconstruction and language games) continued to provide students with language skill practice, but not in a drill format like in the first phase. In other words, computers provide context for students to use the language, therefore, grammar is taught implicitly rather than explicitly, allowing students create originality and flexibility in their output of the language. The computer, thus, functions as stimulus, where the computer stimulates students’ discussion and writing through role-playing games.
3.      Integrative CALL:
Interactive CALL the third phase of CALL, started in the 1990s. Integrative CALL was developed in an effort to address some criticisms of the communicative approach by both integrating the teaching of four language skills into tasks to provide direction and coherence and the development of multimedia technology. That is, CALL in this stage allows for a combination of sound, graphics, text, and video presented in one computerized program together with computer-mediated communication and further facilitates efforts to teach the four macro skill including listening, speaking, reading and writing. In this phase, the computer serves as tool, in which the computer does not provide learning material, but empowers users to actually use language. CALL in this period is regarded as a shift from the use of the computer for drill and tutorial purposed into a medium for extending education beyond the language classroom. In other words, in integrative approaches, students learn how to use a variety of technological tools as part of an ongoing process of language learning and use, rather than visiting the computer lab on a once a week basis for isolated exercises. 
v CALL and language skill:
 Computers offer learners various activities for developing different language skills. They can provide a useful and motivating medium for both integrated skills and separate activities.
1.      Reading Skills:
 There are three main ways in which computers are useful in helping language learners develop reading skills.
a)      Incidental reading.  
Most of the CALL programs, whether oriented towards reading or not, involve the learner in reading text for the successful completion of the activity.
b)      Reading comprehension.  
Traditional question and answer CALL programs are used for reading comprehension as well as grammar and vocabulary development.
c)      Text manipulation.  
There are a number of ways in which computers can manipulate continuous text which involve the learner in close study of the content and structure of the text. An example might be dark reading which provides students with authentic texts. Additionally, sentence structure, speed reading and cloze-reading are some of the alternative ways of developing reading skills.
2.      Writing Skills:   
                     The Word Processing program is one of the most common purposes for which computers are used and it is regarded as the most powerful to use when starting to work with CALL. In order to use word processors learners have to be familiar to the keyboard of the computer and they also have to learn the following before using the computer:
Ø  Learn how to start a word processor
Ø  Learn how to delete and insert a letter, a word or a larger chunk of text
Ø  Learn how to save text
Ø  Print a text
Ø  Moving words, lines, sentences, etc. around.
                    Word-processing programs transform the computer into a complicated and flexible writing help that can improve learners' writing skills and their attitude toward writing. The main principle of word-processing programs is based on the ability to manipulate text freely. By writing text into the memory of a computer, the writer can play round with his text until entirely satisfied. The word-processor provides useful practice for guided and free writing.
3.      Speaking Skills:  
Oral communication is very important in language learning process. In today's language classrooms, significant stress is given to oral activities in which learners use the language and also they have learned to communicate with each other. These activities include simulations, role-plays and discussion. Computer simulations provide a stimulus for such a work, as they offer both a focus for oral activity and a repeatedly changing scenario for learners to talk about. Computers have a useful contribution to the development of oral skills if they are used wisely Dialogue studies can be made by the computers with the help of the movies; students watching these dialogues can see the conversation, setting and cultural atmosphere clearly. They can also see the body movements and the semiotic background of the conversations and earn a powerful experience and thus improve their communicative competence. The main advantage of computer simulations is that they are very motivating. They give learners instant feedback on the effects of their decisions, and this feedback itself stimulates arguments and comments, suggestions and counter suggestions.
4.      Listening Skills:
 Listening activities that use the computer are more complex than the other kinds of CALL materials since they involve equipment other than the computer itself. One of the simplest ways of giving practice in listening comprehension is to use a multiple-choice. In addition to the normal feedback given after a wrong answer, the computer can let the learner hear the relevant part of the tape again. If a separate cassette recorder is used, the error message can give the learner appropriate counter numbers. Another simple technique is to use a tape with a test-reconstruction program which enables learners to reconstruct a summary of a recorded anecdote on screen by the help of the tape. Such activities not only help to integrate listening and writing skills but also evaluate learners' listening comprehension skills in a more active way than is generally possible in a non-CALL class.
5.      Grammar Development through CALL:
Computer software and the World Wide Web provide both students and teachers with materials which integrate language skills, as well as with separate activities for grammar, vocabulary, reading, and the like. Some grammar activities that can be done on the computer might be: matching, multiple choice, fill in the gaps or complete the following. Sample multiple choice grammar quizzes are provided in The quizzes can be done either online or after printing them. After finishing the exercise you can ask for immediate feedback by clicking on the submission button. The tests can be done either online or after printing them. However, you cannot ask for immediate feedback if you print the material. Vocabulary related Computer software such as guessing games, do-it-yourself dictionaries or word building activities provide a nice challenge for students.
v Advantages and Disadvantages of CALL:
1.      Advantages of CALL:
                             One of the most important advantages of the growth of CALL is that software sellers no longer feel bound to grammar practice as the main goal of computer use in the language classroom. The movement towards communicative teaching with computers is clearly expanding. The vocabulary software has started to be contextualized and to include graphics, audio recording and playback, and video. More sophisticated error-checking can provide students real help in the feedback they receive, directing them to further practice or moving them to the next stage. The writing process is another area where computers have added a great deal of value. Some programs help students in the pre-writing stage to generate and outline ideas. Most word-processors now come with spelling checkers, giving weak spellers some help in finding their errors and recognizing the correct spelling from a list of options.
Most pronunciation programs now incorporate some sort of voice recording and playback to let students compare their recording with a model. Most computer programs stimulate some discussion among group of learners even if oral practice is not the main purpose of the activity. Most drills now include games, as well, using the power of the computer and competition for collaboration toward a goal, the fun factor, to motivate language learning. The other advantages of CALL are:
• Multimodal practice with feedback,
• Individualization in a large class,
• Pair or small group work on projects,
• The fun factor,
• Variety in the resources available and learning styles used,
• Exploratory learning with large amounts of language data,
On a more general note, CALL programs ,besides teaching a foreign language, will provide the learner with some sort of computer literacy, which is becoming essential in our modern society and which could be of great help in future training and career prospects. The difference between the computer and other pieces of equipment, such as tape recorders and film projectors is its interactive capability as highlighted in the quotation. The computer gives individual attention to the learner and replies to him. Traditionally it acts as a tutor, assessing the learner's reply, recording it, pointing out mistakes, giving explanations. It guides the learner towards the correct answer. It offers interactive learning; it can assess the learner's response.
2.      Disadvantages of CALL:
               There are some disadvantages of CALL,
 Once computer laboratories are established, it is not possible to re-equip them for several years. There are many limitations of equipment and facilities, and many teachers may not be able to do what they want to do. Computers are not very good at teaching themselves, and the software does not run the lesson for the teacher. The teacher can adapt, improve for shortcomings in the software. It can take longer to learn a piece of CALL software than handle a textbook, because s/he has to work through it, rather than just over viewing through it. The teacher must feel comfortable in the computer lab and with the medium in order to be able to use it effectively. In addition, it is important to use the appropriate program for the students' level. If it is not correct for their level, the activity cannot be prevented from becoming a chaos of uncertainty. No matter how simple computers and software are, students need to learn a great deal to use them. Some students can never really adjust to using computers. They are never comfortable with them so these students often make mistakes. On some occasions the computer programs used with learners can be overtaken by a power cut, or mechanical failure. Therefore, teachers should be trained in the use of computers. Some other disadvantages can be listed as following:
 • Learners who do not have prior experience in using the keyboard may waste a lot of valuable time identifying in order to print their responses.
• Working with computers normally means that the learners work in isolation. This obviously does not help in developing normal communication between the learners, which is a crucial aim in any language lesson.
• Computers cannot conduct open ended dialogues and cannot give feedback to open ended questions.
 • The time and effort required to develop CALL programs could be considerable, and thus their cost and effectiveness becomes questionable. It requires competence in the target subject area, academic skills and computing experience.
v  Conclusion:
                                 CALL is emerged as the replacing effect of direct modes of direct student-teacher interaction. CALL has its advantages as well as disadvantages. Learners sometimes cannot adjust to computer and also we say that it can help in solving problems of grammar. It also is helping in developing soft skills of  learner.